Indicators

Indicators are computed metrics. They provide an indication of how a system is performing from the capacity and forecasting perspective. They are derived information and not measurements. With indicators, you can get additional insight into the status of the managed entity. Indicators are used individually (For example, in capacity views) or as part of Optimizer rules to compute recommendations.

Indicators are computed using fresh data imported into BMC Helix Continuous Optimization. Some indicators are computed for three time periods, namely last 1, 7, and 30 days. Others are computed only for last 30 days.

The following table lists and describes the indicators.

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UOM: unit of measurement

All = VMware, AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, Hyper-V, KVM, Xenserver, Kubernetes, Standalone systems

IndicatorDescriptionUOMSupported cloud provider/technology

Bottleneck Resource

(IND_BNECK_RESOURCE)

A resource that is currently limiting the system. This indicator is evaluated as the minimum value of available days to saturation. Possible values: CPU, MEMORY, STORAGE, or MANY (more than one resource is saturated).-

VMware - Virtual Cluster

Composite Memory Consumption

(IND_COMPOSITE_MEMORY_CONSUMPTION)

An estimate of the amount of memory that is effectively in use in the system.

The consumed memory is too high, while the active memory gives too low a picture of usage. The "composite" memory consumption is a more realistic estimate of the amount of memory that is effectively in use in the system. It considers both Active and Consumed memory numbers reported by vSphere, and adjusts these numbers using memory pressure due to contention, as measured by swapping, ballooning, and the total memory overcommitment in the system.

This indicator is based on the Memory Pressure Index indicator. You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • Ratio of consumed memory by active memory threshold
  • Memory overcommitment threshold
Bytes

VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host, Capacity Pool

Composite Memory Utilization %

(IND_COMPOSITE_MEMORY_UTILIZATION)

An estimate (in percentage) of the amount of memory that is effectively in use in the system. It is a percentage calculated by using the value in the Composite Memory Consumption (IND_COMPOSITE_MEMORY_CONSUMPTION) indicator over the total memory of the system.

PCT

VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host, Capacity Pool

CPU Demand

(IND_CPU_DEMAND)

An estimate of the CPU demand that is based on number of CPU cores used by the VM in the last 30 days.

This indicator has three subresources: Aggressive, Balanced, and Conservative. These subresources are computed based on the following metrics:

  • Aggressive: CPU_UTIL [avg] metric
  • Balanced: CPU_UTILMHZ_HM [avg] metric
  • Conservative: CPU_UTILMHZ_HM [max] metric

This indicator is used to determine whether the VM is overallocated for CPU.

CPU
  • VMware - Virtual Machine
  • AWS - Virtual Machine
  • Azure - Virtual Machine
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Machine
  • KVM - Virtual Machine
  • Xenserver - Virtual Machine
  • Standalone systems

CPU Density

(IND_CPU_DENSITY)

The ratio of total vCPUs configured on the VM (VCPU_ON_NUM) to the total number of physical cores (CPU_NUM) in the cluster.
  • VCPU_ON_NUM: Calculated as the 95th percentile over the last 30 days
  • CPU_NUM: Current day (today) values.

Example: For a virtual cluster with 8 cores and 36 vCPUs, CPU density = 36 / 8 = 4.5.

QTY
  • VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Host

CPU Pressure Index

(IND_CPU_PRESSURE)

An index between 0 and 100 that is calculated by using CPU utilization and other CPU based metrics (such as CPU_READY, CPU_QUEUE_LENGTH, and so on). Higher the value, higher the pressure. For more information, see Computation details for VMware metrics.

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • For Virtual Cluster - VMware and Virtual Host - VMware:
    • CPU Ready threshold for VMs
    • Minimum VMs considered for CPU Ready impact
  • For PowerVM Host - AIX:
    • CPU Queue Length threshold for partitions
    • Minimum Partitions considered for CPU Queue Length impact
QTY
  • VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host, Capacity Pool,
  • AIX PowerVM: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • KVM: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Host

CPU Size

(IND_CPU_SIZE)

The total size (processing capacity) of the physical CPU core configured for the VM, measured in MHz per CPU fractions.MHz/CPU fractions

All

CPU Used

(IND_CPU_USED)

The total CPU (processing) capacity utilized by the VM, measured in MHz per CPU fractions.MHz/CPU fractions

All

Days Idle

(IND_DAYS_IDLE)

The number of days for which a VM has been idle in the last 90 days.

A VM is considered idle if it is powered on, and if its CPU utilization, network rate, and disk rate values are less than their corresponding thresholds.

This indicator has three subresources: Idle_time, Powered_On_Time, and Powered_Off_Time. These subresources are computed based on the following metrics:

  • Idle_time: CPU_UTIL, NET_BIT_RATE (for VMware)/NET_BYTE_RATE (for other technologies), DISK_TRANSFER_RATE, UPTIME metrics
  • Powered_On_Time: UPTIME metric
  • Powered_Off_Time: UPTIME metric

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • CPU utilization threshold
  • Network rate threshold
  • Disk I/O rate threshold

This indicator is used to generate the Idle VM recommendation.

Days
  • VMware - Virtual Machine
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Machine
  • AWS - Virtual Machine
  • Azure - Virtual Machine

Days to Saturation

(IND_DAYS_TO_SATURATION)

The estimated number of days before the CPU, memory, and storage resources achieve the configured threshold.

A certain amount of historical data is required to provide accurate Days to Saturation values. By default, the last 30 days of historical data is used for forecasting saturation and the minimum 5 days of data is required to calculate the utilization trend of resources. You can modify these settings on the indicators page in the Administration > Optimizer section.

The following values are displayed for the Days to Saturation (DTS) indicator in the Workspace and Views tabs:

WorkspaceViewsDescription
999,99Not SaturatedNo saturation predicted or occurred in last 30 days.
-1SaturatedSaturation of resource has exceeded threshold in last 30 days.
<Number of days><Number of days>Number of days to reach capacity shortfall or saturation.

Configurable parameters for DTS:

  • Minimum number of days needed to calculate trends - Default is 5 days.
  • (Displayed when Use long term data to compute indicators is enabled) Number of months of long term historical data
    Based on the configuration of the long term historical data, the DTS indicator is computed differently:
    • When long term history is disabled - The last 30 days of historical data is used for forecasting saturation. The robust linear algorithm is applied for estimating the number of days to saturation.

    • When long term history is enabled - The user-specified historical time period in the Optimizer thresholds configuration is used for forecasting saturation. If the system has more than six months of data, the yearly time shift algorithm is applied for estimating the number of days to saturation for the next 180 days. Else, the system falls back to the robust linear algorithm. This computation of days to saturation is applicable for all system types in all capacity views.

  • Ignore already saturated resources - Default is No.
    • When disabled - If a system is marked as saturated in the last 30 days, the alert remains active until this period is over, though the system turns not saturated during this period. For example, if the system was marked as saturated 25 days back, the system will still be displayed as saturated for the next 4 days.
    • When enabled - All systems with resources (CPU, Memory, or Storage) that are already saturated are ignored and not displayed in the DTS alerts. Only upcoming saturations are displayed. Accordingly, these saturated systems are not listed in the Recommendations pages in the view. 

The warning thresholds are based on the following metrics:

  • CPU: CPU_UTIL

  • Memory: MEM_REAL_UTIL (If MEM_REAL_UTIL is not available, MEM_UTIL is used)
  • Storage: TOTAL_FS_UTIL (If TOTAL_FS_UTIL is not available, TOTAL_DSTORE_UTIL is used)
DaysAll

Efficiency Score

(IND_EFFICIENCY_SCORE)

Indicates the overall efficiency of the entity, produced by combining the efficiency of CPU, memory, and storage resources. Under-used resources, Idle VMs, and old snapshots are considered as the inefficient use of resources.

QTY
  • AIX PowerVM: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • KVM: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • Hyper-V: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool

Reserved Instance Eligible Hours

(IND_ELIGIBLE_HOURS_RESERVEDINSTANCE)

The total number of compute hours in a region that is considered 'enough' or that qualifies to be reserved.

The eligible hours value is calculated for all instances in a region, per instance type, per operating system.

This indicator is used to generate the AWS reserved instance recommendation.

Hours

AWS - Virtual Machine

Memory Spare

(IND_MEM_SPARE1)

Amount of spare memory available from the total size of physical memory configured for the VM. 

  • Computation for Windows VMs:
    IND_MEM_SPARE = TOTAL_REAL_MEM – MEM_USED
  • Computation for Unix/Linux VMs:
    TOTAL_REAL_MEM – MEM_REAL_USED

where, TOTAL_REAL_MEM data is taken from the VM and the MEM_USED and MEM_REAL_USED data is taken from the Virtual Node.

BytesVMware - Virtual Machine

Memory Demand

(IND_MEMORY_DEMAND)

An estimate of the memory demand that is based on memory utilization of the VM in the last 30 days. This indicator is used to determine whether the VM is overallocated for memory.

  • For vSphere VMs, the memory demand indicator is based on 95th percentile value of the MEM_REAL_UTIL or MEM_ACTIVE metric.
    When using the MEM_ACTIVE metric, the memory demand is calculated such that the MEM_ACTIVE value is increased by a factor but never exceeds the MEM_CONSUMED[pctile95] value.

IND_MEMORY_DEMAND = Real Memory Utilization (if collection inside OS is available) OR min{Active Memory * (1 + vSphere VM Active Memory increase factor) , Consumed Memory}

You can configure the vSphere VM Active Memory increase factor threshold for this indicator.

  • For other VMs, it is based on 95th percentile value of inside OS memory if available, else based on consumed memory of VM.
Bytes
  • VMware - Virtual Machine
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Machine
  • AWS - Virtual Machine
  • Azure - Virtual Machine

Memory Size

(IND_MEM_SIZE)

The total size of physical memory configured for the VM, measured in BYTES.BytesAll

Memory Used

(IND_MEM_USED)

The total amount of physical memory utilized by the VM, measured in BYTES.BytesAll

Memory Pressure Index

(IND_MEMORY_PRESSURE)

An index between 0 and 100 that takes ino account memory usage and contention, and provides a realistic picture of the memory pressure of a given system. 

This indicator is used to compute the Composite Memory Consumption (IND_COMPOSITE_MEMORY_CONSUMPTION) and Composite Memory Utilization % (IND_COMPOSITE_MEMORY_UTILIZATION) indicators. For more information, see Computation details for VMware metrics.

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • For PowerVM Host - AIX:
    • Memory page rate threshold for partitions
    • Minimum Partitions considered for Memory page rate impact
  • For Virtual Machine - VMware:
    • Minimum swap rate exceed count
  • For VMware Clusters, Hosts and Capacity Pools:
    • Ratio of consumed memory by active memory threshold
    • Memory overcommitment threshold
QTY
  • AIX PowerVM - Virtual Host
  • VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host, Virtual Machine, Capacity Pool
  • KVM: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Host

Oversubscription

(IND_OVERSUBSCRIPTION)

This indicator can be classified into the following types:

  • IND_OVERSUBSCRIPTION[Memory]: The ratio of total memory configured on the VM to the total memory in the cluster. It is calculated as:
    IND_OVERSUBSCRIPTION[MEMORY] = [SUM of  TOTAL_REAL_MEM of VMs in cluster] / [TOTAL_REAL_MEM]
  • IND_OVERSUBSCRIPTION[Storage]: The ratio of storage provisioned for the VMs to the total shared storage in the cluster. It is calculated as:
    IND_OVERSUBSCRIPTION[STORAGE] = [SUM of TOTAL_STORAGE_PROVISIONED of VMs in cluster] / [TOTAL_DSTORE_SIZE]

TOTAL_REAL_MEM, TOTAL_DSTORE_SIZE, TOTAL_STORAGE_PROVISIONED
are calculated on the current day's (today) values.
QTY

VMware: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host

Risk Score

(IND_RISK_SCORE)

Indicates the overall risk of the entity, produced by combining key capacity and performance metrics using a proprietary formula. Metrics from CPU, memory, storage are taken into account. The highest risk is assigned as the overall risk value.  In cases where the risk score is aggregated from the child entities, the highest risk is assigned as the overall risk value.


QTY
  • All: Virtual Machine
  • AIX PowerVM, VMware, KVM, Hyper-V: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • Service pools
  • Standalone systems

Spare VMs

(IND_SPARE_VM)

An estimate of the additional VMs that can be added to a cluster based on a typical VM configuration. Using this estimate, you can identify the clusters with residual or spare capacity.

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • Use Composite Memory Utilization indicator instead of Memory Utilization metric
  • Default VM CPU usage
  • Default VM memory usage
  • Default VM storage usage
QTY
  • All: Virtual Cluster, Virtual Host
  • VMware - Virtual Machine
  • OpenStack cloud: Host Aggregate, Availability Zone, Region


Storage Demand

(IND_STORAGE_DEMAND)

An estimate of the storage demand that is based on storage utilization (TOTAL_FS_UTIL[pctile95] or TOTAL_FS_USED[pctile95] metric) of the VM in the last 30 days.

This indicator is used to determine whether the VM is overallocated for storage.

Bytes
  • VMware - Virtual Machine
  • AWS - Virtual Machine
  • Azure - Virtual Machine

Storage Size

(IND_STORAGE_SIZE)

The total amount of physical disk storage configured or available for the VM, measured in BYTES.BytesAll

Storage Pressure Index

(IND_STORAGE_PRESSURE)

An index between 0 and 100 that takes into account the storage utilization and provides a realistic picture of the storage pressure of a given system. For more information, see Computation details for VMware metrics.

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • For VMware Clusters and Hosts:
    • I/O latency threshold
    • Minimum Datastores considered for I/O latency impact
QTY
  • VMware:
    • Virtual Cluster
    • Virtual Host
    • Capacity Pool
  • AIX - Capacity Pool
  • Hyper-V - Virtual Host

Storage Used

(IND_STORAGE_USED)

The total amount of physical disk storage utilized by the VM, measured in BYTES.BytesAll

Usage Score

(IND_USAGE_SCORE)


Indicates the overall usage of the entity, produced by taking an average of the usage of the three core resources: CPU, memory and storage.  In cases where the usage score is aggregated from the children entities, it is produced by taking the average of the usage of the children entities.


QTY
  • All: Virtual Machine
  • AIX PowerVM, VMware, KVM, Hyper-V: Virtual Host, Capacity Pool
  • Service pools
  • Standalone systems

vCPU Size

(IND_VCPU_SIZE)

The total number of virtual CPUs configured on or for the VM. This number includes the vCPUs that may or may not be currently in use by the VM.CPUAll

vCPU Used

(IND_VCPU_USED)

The total number of virtual CPUs currently in use by the VM.CPUAll

Virtualization Readiness Index

(IND_VIRT_READINESS)

This indicator is deprecated.

Index (in percentage) that enables you to choose the best candidate VMs for virtualization.

It is calculated using the following formula:

VRI = (1 - min(1,AVG(CPU_UTILMHZ)/MAX_CPU_GHZ))
    * (1 - min(1,AVG(MEM_CONSUMED)/MAX_MEM_AVAILABLE))
    * (1 - min(1,AVG(DISK_IO_RATE)/MAX_DISK_IOPS))
    * (1 - min(1,AVG(NET_BIT_RATE)/MAX_NET_BANDWIDTH))

This formula calculates the average resource utilization for the candidate VM, and compares it with a set of reference values.

Default values are:

  • MAX_CPU_GHZ: 5 GHz
  • MAX_MEM_AVAILABLE: 8 GB
  • MAX_DISK_IOPS: 75K I/O operations per second (IOPS)
  • MAX_NET_BANDWIDTH: 1 Gigabit per second

Note: The VRI value that is computed based on the preceding formula and default values lies between 0 and 1. A VRI closer to 1 signifies that the VM is a good candidate for virtualization, due to low resource utilization. A VRI of 0 does not necessarily mean that the VM cannot be virtualized, but that its virtualization should be considered carefully.

You can configure the following thresholds for this indicator:

  • CPU consumption metric mandatory
  • CPU consumption threshold
  • Memory consumption metric mandatory
  • Memory consumption threshold
  • Disk consumption metric mandatory
  • Disk consumption threshold
  • Network consumption metric mandatory
  • Network consumption threshold
PCT

Standalone systems

1 - Computed for VMs only if there is an established relationship (GM_ASSOCIATED_TO_VN) between the VM and its corresponding Virtual Node (VN). To create this relationship, rerun the Virtual Node Linker system task (Administration > ETL & SYSTEM TASKS > System tasks > Virtual Node Linker).


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