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Business and technical services modeling

Business and technical service modeling is required for building service models that connect a business with IT. This modeling allows business users, service line managers, the service desk, and IT operations to have a common understanding of the relationships between the technology (IT) and the services delivered.

Business Services and Technical Services

The following table shows details about business services and technical services:

Business ServicesTechnical Services

Business services are services that a business provides to another business. It is also used to represent a service from one organization to another organization within a business.

Technical services are services that IT organization provides in order to support business services or IT operations
A business service directly supports a business process and is offered to business customers. Business services generally have a measurable value to their customersA technical (or infrastructure) service is not directly used by the business but is necessary to provide business services
Examples: E-mail service, ERP, order processing, and so on are examples of business servicesExamples: Employee provisioning, backup and recovery, storage, and self-service help desk

Both business and technical services are represented by the BMC_BusinessService  class with the ServiceType attribute set to either BusinessService (10) or TechnicalService (20). The ServiceLifeCycle attribute is another important attribute in a business service. ServiceLifeCycle represents the life cycle a service is currently in - such as whether it is in requirements, design, released, operational, or other states.

Business or technical services are dependent on applications installed on one or more servers. This is one of the most important ways of providing a service context to infrastructure Configuration Items (CIs) such as applications, software servers, clusters, and computer systems. In addition, business services are dependent on the infrastructure CIs. This dependency can be represented in one of the following ways:

  • Use a technical service to represent the technical infrastructure CIs that support the business service.
  • Do not use technical service but directly connect the business service to infrastructure CIs such as BMC_Application and BMC_ApplicationService.

Business Services connected to Infrastructure CIs model

In this model, a business service is connected to infrastructure CIs that support the business service. A business service is dependent on applications, software servers, network devices and so on. Dependency relationships are used from business service CIs to each of the infrastructure CIs. It is important to note that every infrastructure CI that has a business service is dependent on need not be directly connected through a dependency relationship to business service. In practice, only BMC_Application, BMC_SoftwareServer, and BMC_ApplicationService are used to connect to a business service. 

For example, in the following diagram, BMC Remedy Service Desk is a business service that is provided by the IT organization. This business service is dependent on the Action Request clustered application running on two servers.

Business service dependent on two technical services model

In the following diagram, a claims business service is dependent on two CIs - a saleslunchclaims module and a secur module, each running on a different Apache Tomcat application server. Each of these modules are represented as BMC_ApplicationService CIs and are connected to the claims business service through BMC_Dependency.

Business Services, Provider Organizations and Customers

Organizations can provide, support or consume a business or technical service.

Business Services provided by organization model

For example, in the above example, Claims business service is provided by Accounts department in Calbro company. This relationship between a business service and organization is represented by a BMC_Dependency with Name=ORGANIZATIONPROVIDESSERVICE.

Note

There are two organizations modeled in the following diagram, the Accounts organization and it's parent, Calbro. This is indicated by a BMC_MemberOfCollection relationship with Name=ORGANIZATIONCOMPOSEDOF. Usually, the organization providing the service is the lowest level of organization, if this information is available within a company.

An organization can be a consumer of a business service through a contract provided by another organization. A contract establishes the agreement between a customer and a provider for a service.

Business Services consumed by customer organization model

In the following diagram, BMC Remedy Service Desk is a business service that Calbro provides as a service provider to another customer company, called MyCompany through a specific agreement called a ServicesContract.

  • MyCompany is a consumer of this business service through the ServicesContract contract.
  • The customer to contract relationship is represented by a BMC_Dependency relationship with Name=ORGANIZATIONISCUSTOMERFORCONTRACT.
  • Calbro is the provider of the service and is related to the contract through a BMC_Dependency relationship with Name=ORGANIZATIONPROVIDESSERVICE.

Business services and people model

Just as organizations can support a business service, people can also support business services. There are two main aspects of people modeling:

  • The person's relationship to the organization that they belong to.
  • The services that the person support.

For example, assume that claims is provided by the Accounts organization but supported by an AppSupport group under Calbro:

  • AppSupport is a support group that is also modeled as BMC_Organization.

  • Since AppSupport is a part of Calbro company, there is a relationship from Calbro to AppSupport which is represented by BMC_MemberOfCollection with Name=ORGANIZATIONCOMPOSEDOF.
  • Sandy is a support person in AppSupport and this relationship is represented by BMC_Dependency with Name=PERSONASSOCIATEDWITHORGANIZATION.
  • Sandy also supports the Claims business service. This is represented by the relationship BMC_Dependency with Name=SERVICESUPPORTEDBYPERSON.

Service Offerings, Requestable Service Offerings, and Service Level Targets

ITILv3 describes a service as a combination of utility and warranty whereas:

  • Utility describes what a Service does.
  • Warranty describes how well it does it.
  • Warranty is composed of a set of assertions by the service provider about the service levels that are provided.

The service levels that are provided typically include the type and hours of support, availability targets, response times, and storage capacity.

An important consideration is that service providers offer the same utility at different levels of warranty. One customer may get the utility with 5x8 telephone support while another customer may do so with 7x24 telephone support. Requiring the creation of a new service to capture the variations in warranty would lead to a proliferation of services and confusion at several levels.

Each dimension of warranty, such as response times, availability, so on, is represented as a Service Level Target (SLT). Some number of SLTs (representing the warranty) are connected to a service (representing the utility) to form a Service Offering (SO), represented by BMC_Offering. Therefore, a SO represents a level of warranty for a given service represented by BMC_BusinessService. There can be several service offerings for a given service where each SO represents a different warranty. 

For example, a business service offering may have an SLT that requires that IT Support delivers the service to customers in no more than two hours. This service offering might be named ERP Gold, based on a service called ERP defined in the service catalog. Business customers do not subscribe to services, they subscribe to service offerings.

Note

BMC_Offering is an abstract class.

In order to create instances in CMDB, the BMC_ServiceOffering class is used to represent an ERP Gold service offering. A Requestable Offering (RO) is one that is requestable and is based on a technical or business service that is offered. For example, for an ERP System business service offering, you might have requestable offerings for creating an account on the ERP System, closing an account on the ERP System, and increasing the database limit on the ERP System. A requestable offering is represented by BMC_RequestableOffering.

There are two types of Requestable Offerings (ROs):

  • Delivery ROs — Sets up the service (creates a service offering instance) such as creating an account on ERP.
  • Transactional ROs — Could be request such as reset my password or close an account on ERP.

Note

A service offering can have one or more delivery requestable offerings and one or more transactional requestable offerings.

Service offering and requestable offerings model

In the following diagram, a company's Virtual Private Network (Company-VPN) is represented as a BMC_BusinessService CI that has one service offering and two requestable offerings (ROs):

  • BMC_BusinessService is connected to a BMC_ServiceOffering CI with a BMC_ServiceRealizedByOffering CI with Name=SERVICEREALIZEDBYOFFERING and business service as the source.
  • Since there is only one BMC_ServiceOffering CI, the isDefault attribute for this CI is set to Yes.
  • One of the BMC_RequestableOffering has a DeliveryRO attribute set to Yes which indicates that this RO sets up the service.
  • The other BMC_RequestableOffering is simply a transactional RO and hence the DeliveryRO attribute is set to No.

Note

Each requestable offering is connected to service offering via a BMC_Dependency relationship with Name=SOENABLESRO and an requestable offering source.

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