Support for AIX partitions

TrueSight Capacity Optimization provides the following support for AIX partitions:

Support for AIX hardware partitions

System configuration data, collected by TrueSight Capacity Optimization, identifies the type of partition that is providing the data. For more information about AIX partition types, refer to Overview of AIX partitions.

Analyze reports on performance statistics for both operating system and physical partition level that enables you to analyze data from two points of view:

  • The individual AIX operating system (partitioned or stand alone) level, which provides resource utilization information presented in Analyze reports can be used for reporting, or as input for charge back calculations
  • The server level, based on system configuration data, which lets you analyze and model the full system view.

Support for AIX workload partitions

IBM AIX workload partitions (WPARs) are available starting with AIX version 6.1. WPARs are similar in concept to Solaris Zones, in that there are two types of workload partitions: the global WPAR and the non-global WPAR.

What is supported for this platform

  • Investigate support for the WPAR Configuration and WPAR Statistics metric groups.
  • Data Analysis that reads and processes the key metrics, identifies and provides the relationships between objects to the database and the model.
  • Presentation of key metrics in views and detailed metrics in IBM WPAR specific charts.
  • Modeling of WPAR systems, each WPAR is represented as a workload in the model.
  • Collection, analysis, modeling and presentation of WPARs running within IBM hardware partitions (LPAR, DLPAR and SPLPAR).

What is not supported for this platform

You cannot install the TrueSight Capacity Optimization Agent in a non-global WPAR, nor can you run a collector inside an AIX non-global WPAR.

Configuration requirements for using with an AIX partitioned system

TrueSight Capacity Optimization collects the configuration data from the IBM Hardware Management Console (HMC) remotely using SSH. You can use only this method from a LPAR running AIX for remote command execution to collect this data. The data collected from the HMC includes the processor and memory resources of the frame that LPAR is running on as well as configuration and statistics (if HMC is configured to do so) of the LPARs running on that frame.

Note

This is also applicable to the IBM Flex System Manager (FSM). Both HMC and FSM work in very similar ways and the logic for configuring both is same with the exception of configuring user accounts. We are using HMC to refer to both HMC and FSM unless specifically noted otherwise.

To enable remote execution of commands without the password prompts, perform the following configuration tasks:

  1. Enable remote command execution on HMC. For more information, see Enabling remote command execution on HMC.
  2. Perform either one of the following actions:

Enabling remote command execution on HMC

To execute commands remotely using the ssh command on TrueSight Capacity Optimization data collector, enable the remote command execution option. To enable remote command execution, perform the following steps on HMC:

  1. In the Navigation area, click the HMC Maintenance icon.
  2. In the Contents area, double-click the System Configuration icon.
  3. In the Contents area, click Enable / Disable Remote Command Execution.
  4. Select the Enable ssh check box.
  5. Click OK.

For more details, refer to the System Configuration chapter in the IBM manual HMC for pSeries Installation and Operation Guide.

Note

HMC version 4.2.1 or later is a system requirement for TrueSight Capacity Optimization to collect partition configuration information.

Using script to configure the AIX environment

For configuring the AIX environment, the user account that is used for installing TrueSight Capacity Optimization on the AIX partition must be authorized to execute commands remotely on the HMC, using keyed encryption passwords. Several configuration steps must be performed to authorize user account. TrueSight Capacity Optimization provides a script (configure_openssh) that simplifies these configuration steps on the AIX partition. This script is available in $BEST1_HOME/bgs/scripts. This script is designed to be run with the default settings that will create the public and private key pair, connect to the HMC, create a user role on the HMC called hmcviewer, copy the public key to the HMC and verify that we can successfully collect data from the HMC.


Use this script to:

  • Create the key files in $BEST1_HOME/local/setup/.ssh.
  • Create an account on the HMC and copy of the public key over to that account (if necessary).
  • Override default settings in the TrueSight Capacity Optimization data collector configuration file ($BEST1_HOME/local/setup/Collect.cfg) in order to:
    • Override default name/IP Address of HMC to use
    • Override default name of HMC user account to use
    • Override default location of ssh
  • Test ability to collect data from HMC


To execute the script, perform the following steps:

  1. Change directory to the following location:

    cd $BEST1_HOME/bgs/scripts
  2. Type the following command:

    $ ./configure_openssh

However, you can override the default settings, by executing the script with any of the flags described in the following table:

Available options for the TrueSight Capacity Optimization SSH configuration file

Note

If you execute the script without using -p flag, a password prompt appears. This password is the new password for the new user account on the HMC being created.

If using a user account already created on the HMC, please use the -s option to prevent the configure_openssh script from attempting to recreate it. This will help eliminate the need to provide any passwords unless a new public needs to be copied to the HMC user account.

Unless there is a need to override any default settings, there should be no need to pass any command line arguments to this script.

Manually configuring the AIX environment

Alternately, you can manually perform the following configuration steps, so that the system and the HMC can communicate via SSH:

  1. Install SSH on the AIX partition (if it is not already installed). For more information, see Installing SSH on AIX partition.
  2. Manually generate the RSA or DSA keypair (the public and private keys) for the partition. For more information, see Manually generating the RSA or DSA keypair.
  3. Enable remote command execution (if not already enabled) on the HMC. For more information, see Enabling remote command execution on HMC.
  4. Create a user with Viewer privileges on the HMC (if necessary). For more information, see Manually creating a user on the HMC.
  5. Manually copy the Public Key to the HMC User Account on the HMC (if necessary). For more information, see Manually copying the Public Key to the HMC User Account on the HMC.
  6. Verify contents of the config file. For more information, see Verifying the contents of config file.
  7. Override the default settings in the data collector configuration file. For more information, see Overriding the default settings in data collector configuration file.
  8. Test connection to the HMC. For more information, see Testing connection to the HMC.
  9. Verify whether the HMC was added to the list of known hosts. For more information, see Verifying the list of known hosts.

Installing SSH on AIX partition

SSH is required to collect data from the HMC. You can verify the installation of SSH on the system by typing the following at the command line:

 $ ssh -V

This command returns the SSH version level, and other information. If SSH is not installed, the software to install the SSH is located on the updated AIX Bonus Pack, for AIX 5L Version 5.1 and later. 

For further information about setting up SSH on AIX, refer to Chapter 4: Secure network connection on AIX in IBM Redbook Managing AIX Server Farms

You can also visit  IBM developerWorks page for more information about using SSH with AIX.

Manually generating the RSA or DSA keypair (the public and private keys)

To create the keypair, ensure that you are logged in using the user that was used to install TrueSight Capacity Optimization. Use the ssh-keygen utility to generate the public/private keypair. The method for generating keys can be different between various Secure Shell (SSH) implementations. 

The generated Key file is saved in the /usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/.ssh directory.

Following is the sample of syntax required for using ssh-keygen:

/usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t <key type - rsa or dsa> -f 
/usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/.ssh/id_<key file type>
 -N "" -P ""

Manually creating a user on the HMC

TrueSight Capacity Optimization requires a user on the HMC, to initiate data collection on the AIX systems running on the partitions managed by the HMC. You can use the HMC system administrator role to create a standard HMC user with the lowest role (Viewer) for the TrueSight Capacity Optimization Agent to use for data collection. A user that is assigned the Viewer role can view the HMC information, but cannot modify the configuration. If the frame is being managed by using FSM, the FSM user account needs to have the smmon role.

You can also identify which HMC user to use in the Collect configuration file (Collect.cfg ). For more information about options available in the Collect configuration file, see Collect configuration filex. 

If you are using multiple HMCs, you can also identify which HMC to use in the Collect.cfg file.

Manually copying the Public Key to the HMC User Account on the HMC

The public portion of the RSA or DSA keypair must be copied to the key file in the user's home directory on the HMC. 

On the AIX client system, use the secure copy command (scp ) to move the authorized_keys2 file to a temporary file on the HMC. Log on to the remote server using the ssh command, and then concatenate the transferred user public key file to the $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys file. For complete instructions, refer to the chapter on Secure network connection on AIX in the IBM Redbook Managing AIX Server Farms.

Verifying the contents of config file

In the config file located in $BEST1_HOME/local/setup/.ssh, verify that the settings for IdentityFile and UserKnownHostsFile are correct for your environment. The following list shows the options and default settings in the config file where <version> refers the version of the TrueSight Capacity Optimization Agent version:

  • NumberOfPasswordPrompts=0
  • ChallengeResponseAuthentication=no
  • PasswordAuthentication=no
  • StrictHostKeyChecking=no
  • IdentitiesOnly=yes
  • IdentityFile=/usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/.ssh/id_<key file type>
  • UserKnownHostsFile=/usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/.ssh/known_hosts

Overriding the default settings in data collector configuration file

If any default settings related to remotely connecting the HMC are required to be overridden, the appropriate settings need to be set in the /usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/Collect.cfg file. Following is the minimum syntax required for configuring the data collector file:

BEGIN_CONFIG
  BEGIN_SYSTEM_COLLECT
    BEGIN_HARDWARE_PARTITION
      BEGIN_HMC
      END_HMC
    END_HARDWARE_PARTITION
  END_SYSTEM_COLLECT
END_CONFIG

You can add the required options between BEGIN_HMC and END_HMC. Following example provides information for configuring the TrueSight Capacity Optimization data collector to connect to the HMC named hmc1, using HMC user account hmcuser and to use /usr/local/bin/ssh to make the remote connection with a timeout of 300 seconds (5 minutes):

BEGIN_CONFIG
  BEGIN_SYSTEM_COLLECT
    BEGIN_HARDWARE_PARTITION
      TIMEOUT = 300
      BEGIN_HMC
        HMC_NAME = "hmc1"
        HMC_USER = "hmcuser"
        SSH = "/usr/local/bin/ssh"
      END_HMC
    END_HARDWARE_PARTITION
  END_SYSTEM_COLLECT
END_CONFIG

Testing connection to the HMC

To test whether or not the TrueSight Capacity Optimization data collect can connect to the HMC, run:

<path to ssh>/ssh -F /usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup/.ssh/config <HMC USER>@<HMC> lshmc -V

where <HMC USER> is the HMC user account and <HMC> is the HMC/IP address to connect to. As an example:

/usr/bin/ssh -F /usr/adm/best1_10.7.00/local/setup/.ssh/config hmcviewer@hmc lshmc -V

If the connection was successful, the HMC should return information about the version of the HMC. Here is an example of the output you should see if the connection was successful:

"version= Version: 7
 Release: 7.4.0
 Service Pack: 1
HMC Build level 20120207.1
MH01302: Fix for HMC V7R7.4.0 SP1 (02-07-2012)
","base_version=V7R7.4.0
"

Verifying the list of known hosts

Once an attempt has been made to test the connection of the HMC, verify that the HMC name has been added to the list of known hosts in the known_hosts file located in the $BEST1_HOME/local/setup/.ssh directory.  For example:

<HMC> ssh-rsa <key related information>

Debugging data collection from the HMC

TrueSight Capacity Optimization provides a debug script (debugPhysPartConfig) that captures necessary information in order to debug issues related to to collection of data from the HMC. This script is located in $BEST1_HOME/bgs/scripts.

To run the script, perform the following steps:

  1. Change directory to the following location:

    cd $BEST1_HOME/bgs/scripts
  2. Type the following command:

    $ ./debugPhysPartConfig


    However, you can override these default settings, by executing the script with any of the flags described in the following table:

    Options available for the BMC Capacity Optimization debug script (debugPhysPartConfig)

    Flag

    Description

    -H HMC

    Specifies the name or the IP address of the HMC that manages the AIX partition.

    -b BEST1_HOME

    Specifies the location of the Best1_HOME directory. By default, this location is /usr/adm/best1_<version> where <version> is the version of the TrueSight Capacity Optimization Agent

    -hProvides help for the script options.
    -mSpecifies the name of the frame
    -tTime OpenSSH calls
    -uUser account to use on HMC

    The use of these options should not be necessary unless trying to override the settings in the TrueSight Capacity Optimization data collector configuration file (Collect.cfg) in the /usr/adm/best1_<version>/local/setup or asked to time how long it takes for the HMC to return data.  Upon completion, this script will generate a compressed tar file to be sent back to BMC Technical Support for analysis.

Reference material

The following IBM publications provide more information about using SSH with AIX:

  • Managing AIX Server Farms (IBM Redbook)
  • Effective System Management Using the IBM Hardware Management Console for pSeries (IBM Redbook)
  • Hardware Management Console for pSeries Installation and Operations Guide
  • AIX 5L Support for Micro-Partitioning and Simultaneous Multi-threading (IBM White Paper)

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